sanitary ware wikipedia
Ad. Twyford Bathrooms is a porcelain sanitary company founded in 1849, headquartered in Alsager, UK. The amount of water used by conventional flush toilets usually makes up a significant portion of personal daily water usage. Synonym of Sanitary ware: English Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia Plumbing fixture A plumbing fixture is an exchangeable device which can be connected to a plumbing system to deliver and drain water. The garderobe was replaced by the privy midden and pail closet in early industrial Europe. A squat toilet (also called "squatting toilet", "natural position toilet", or by many national names) is a toilet of any technology type (i.e. A crucial advance in plumbing, was the S-trap, invented by the Scottish mechanic Alexander Cummings in 1775, and still in use today. , Although a precursor to the flush toilet system which is widely used nowadays was designed in 1596 by John Harington, such systems did not come into widespread use until the late nineteenth century. The water in the toilet bowl is connected to a pipe shaped like an upside-down U. Water closets only started to be moved from outside to inside of the home around 1850.  This type of flush toilet has no cistern but is flushed manually with a few liters of a small bucket. Thesis. Web. The pit or trench can be dug large enough so that the pit can be used for many years before it fills up. , The Indus Valley Civilization also had water-cleaning toilets that used flowing water in each house that were linked with drains covered with burnt clay bricks. Additional measures to add toilet accessibility are providing more space and grab bars to ease transfer to and from the toilet seat, including enough room for a caregiver if necessary. Another form is a street urinal known as a pissoir, after the French term. In 2010 it was announced that the company would have its headquarters … Sanitaryware items can be … Portable toilets can also be urine-diverting dry toilets. Flush toilets are usually connected to a sewer system in urban areas and to septic tanks in isolated areas. Toilets can be designed to be used either in a sitting or in a squatting posture. Depending on the culture, there may be varying degrees of separation between men and women and different levels of privacy. , A floating toilet is essentially a toilet on a platform built above or floating on the water. The speed of introduction was varied, so that in 1906 the predominantly working class town of Rochdale had 750 water closets for a population of 10,000. Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University. Print. Sanitary Ware. In Lothal all houses had their own private toilet which was connected to a covered sewer network constructed of brickwork held together with a gypsum-based mortar that emptied either into the surrounding water bodies or alternatively into cesspits, the latter of which were regularly emptied and cleaned. The toilet, dating back 1500 BC, yielded important clues about early Southeast Asian society.  Another design is to have two buttons, one for urination and the other for defecation. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6 therefore calls for "access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation".. A Sanindusa promete revolucionar a experiência no WC com o novo espelho interativo. However, modern low flush toilet designs allow the use of much less water per flush. Modern related implements are bedpans and commodes, used in hospitals and the homes of invalids. The construction of an underground network of pipes to carry away solid and liquid waste was only begun in the mid 19th-century, gradually replacing the cesspool system, although cesspools were still in use in some parts of Paris into the 20th century.  Sitting toilets are more convenient than squat toilets for people with disabilities and the elderly. Perez Street, North Reclamation Area, Subangdaku, Mandaue City, Cebu, Philippines 6014 +63 923 650-4854 (HR/Admin) /932 599-7419  It is also used in areas subjected to prolonged flooding. , Before the introduction of indoor toilets, it was common to use the chamber pot under one's bed at night and then to dispose of its contents in the morning. A urine-diverting dry toilet uses no water for flushing and keeps urine and feces separate. Euphemisms for the toilet that bear no direct reference to the activities of urination and defecation are ubiquitous in modern Western languages, reflecting a general attitude of unspeakability about such bodily function. If used for an extended period of time, they have to be cleaned out and new chemicals put in the waste receptacle. n. sanitary equipment, toilet bowls, water tanks.  Johan J. Mattelaer said, "Plinius has described how there were large receptacles in the streets of cities such as Rome and Pompeii into which chamber pots of urine were emptied. Sanitary ware definition: plumbing fixtures , as sinks or toilet bowls, made of ceramic material or enameled metal | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples "The Jacks" is Irish slang for toilet. Portable toilets or chemical toilets may be brought in for large and temporary gatherings. , Astronauts on the International Space Station use a space toilet with urine diversion which can recover potable water. To reduce the amount of excreta that needs to hauled to shore, many use urine diversion. Associated especially with slums, they are called flying toilets "because when you have filled them, you throw them as far away as you can".  Garderobes would be placed in areas away from bedrooms to shun the smell and also near kitchens or fireplaces to keep the enclosure warm. This can be useful for the elderly or people with disabilities.  Chamber pots were in common use in Europe from ancient times, even being taken to the Middle East by medieval pilgrims.. These fittings are available in many designs and configurations, but most sanitary fitting products are designed based on one of three basic operating principles. Catalogue and online store bathrooms, toilets and bath accessories. , Toilet was originally a French loanword (first attested in 1540) that referred to the toilette ("little cloth") draped over one's shoulders during hairdressing. Landline: +632 8837 0500 | +632 8837 2400 Follow us. US $26.00-$32.00 / Piece. . sanitary fittings definition: 1. the pieces of furniture that are in a bathroom, such as a toilet, bath, etc. A toilet is a piece of sanitary hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces. Urinals, if present in a men's toilet is typically mounted on a wall with or without a divider between them. ), Different dialects use "bathroom" and "restroom" (American English), "bathroom" and "washroom" (Canadian English), and "WC" (an initialism for "water closet"), "lavatory" and its abbreviation "lav" (British English). sanitary ware (countable and uncountable, plural sanitary wares) The ceramic wares designed for use in a bathroom/toilet, including WCs, sinks, urinals, etc. in James Joyce's novel Ulysses and defers to Alan S. C. Ross's arguments that it derived in some fashion from the site of Napoleon's 1815 defeat. World Journal of Urology 17.3 (1999): 145–50. A vault toilet is distinguished from a pit latrine because the waste accumulates in the vault instead of seeping into the underlying soil. They can be set up for a sitting posture or for a squatting posture (squat toilet). Public toilets consist of one or more toilets (and commonly urinals) which are available for use by the general public.  The need for this type of toilet is high in areas like Cambodia..  The Old Norse language had several terms for referring to outhouses, including garðhús (yard house), náð-/náða-hús (house of rest), and annat hús (the other house). In 1849 the English physician John Snow published a paper On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, in which he suggested that cholera might be waterborne. "Some Historical Aspects of Urinals and Urine Receptacles."  The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring progress towards the Millennium Development Goal relating to drinking-water and sanitation (MDG 7, Target 7c). Urine diversion toilets have two compartments, one for urine and one for feces.  Toilet types can be grouped by: People use different toilet types based on the country that they are in. These two uses, the fixture and the room, completely supplanted the other senses of the word during the 20th century except in the form "toiletries". In Olga Gershenson and Barbara Penner (eds. Sanitary towel. These types of toilets do not use water as an odor seal or to move excreta along. Toilets can be with or without flushing water ( flush toilet or dry toilet ). , "What is Sanitary ware? During the Victorian era, British housemaids collected all of the household's chamber pots and carried them to a room known as the housemaids' cupboard. Interactive urinals have been developed in several countries, allowing users to play video games. For the common flush toilet, see, Piece of hardware for the collection or disposal of human excreta, A flush toilet bowl (left) and squat toilet with tank (right), Toilet connected to livestock or aquaculture, For a full list of English synonyms, see ". Contextual translation of "sanitary ware" into Finnish. China Sanitary Ware manufacturers - Select 2021 high quality Sanitary Ware products in best price from certified Chinese Sanitaryware manufacturers, Sanitary-Related Products suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com The flowing water removed the human waste.  The Neolithic village of Skara Brae contains examples, c.3000 BCE, of internal small rooms over a communal drain, rather than pit. (Redirected from Sanitaryware) Jump to navigation Jump to search. The time spent at such a table also came to be known as one's "toilet"; it came to be a period during which close friends or tradesmen were received as "toilet-calls". However, many poor households in developing countries use very basic, and often unhygienic toilets - and nearly one billion people have no access to a toilet at all, and are forced to do open defecation. Dry toilets use no water for flushing. Many types of toilets without a water seal (also called dry toilets or "non-flush toilets") exist. If notability cannot be shown, the article is likely to be merged, redirected, or deleted The left hand is used for cleansing, for which reason that hand is considered impolite or polluted in many Asian countries.. A wide variety of sanitary ware options are available to you, such as round. We are manufacturer and supplier of sanitaryware products and bathroom fittings. See all the SCPA Branches. 1996, Tekla Dennison Miller, The Warden Wore Pink, page 117: When I made evening rounds, I saw women with their hair rolled, using the sanitaries for rollers. Middle Ages. LAUFEN stands for swissness, quality and design, offering complete bathroom solutions around the world. Human translations with examples: saniteetti, sanitaatio, ruokaperuna, 7321+73229+, raakatavara, varastoperuna. "Influence of voiding posture on urodynamic parameters in men: a literature review (in Dutch)", "Eight surprisingly rude gestures to avoid when travelling", Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-water: 2013 Update, Article, Govt: Bt900bn needed (in Thailand), The Nation October 31, 2011, "Floating toilets to clean up Cambodia's act", "1 Chapter 2 Sanitation and wastewater technologies in Harappa/Indus valley civilization ( ca . By the Early Modern era, chamber pots were frequently made of china or copper and could include elaborate decoration. Look at other dictionaries: sanitaryware — NOUN toilet bowls, cisterns, and other fittings … English terms dictionary  This type of toilet is common in many Asian countries. This solid waste, euphemistically known as nightsoil, was sold as fertilizer for agricultural production (similarly to the closing-the-loop approach of ecological sanitation). This means that the defecation posture used is to place one foot on each side of the toilet drain or hole and to squat over it. Middle East Technical University, 2009.  These toilets had vertical chutes, via which waste was disposed of into cesspits or street drains. There are toilets on the market where the seats have integrated spray mechanisms for anal and genital water sprays (see for example Toilets in Japan). Gershenson, Olga; Penner, Barbara (2009): Mattelaer, Johan J. Contact Supplier. The pig toilet, which consists of a toilet linked to a pigsty by a chute, is still in use to a limited extent. A typical flush toilet is a ceramic bowl (pan) connected on the "up" side to a cistern (tank) that enables rapid filling with water, and on the "down" side to a drain pipe that removes the effluent. Web. See more at Wikipedia.org... hFarsi - advanced version sanitary ware علوم مهندسى : لوازم بهداشتى کلمات مرتبط(2)& Once running water and flush toilets were plumbed into British houses, servants were sometimes given their own lavatory downstairs, separate from the family lavatory. Get contact details & address of companies manufacturing and supplying Sanitary Ware, Plastic Sanitaryware, Ceramic Sanitary Ware across India. (Toto, an abbreviation of Tōyō Tōki (東洋陶器 Oriental Ceramics), is used in Japanese comics to visually indicate toilets or other things that look like toilets; see Toilets in Japan.  With the onset of the industrial revolution and related advances in technology, the flush toilet began to emerge into its modern form. The "fish pond toilet" depends on the same principle, of livestock (often carp) eating human excreta directly. Definition & Meaning", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vitreous_china&oldid=954647832, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 May 2020, at 15:26. Being used in a sitting or squatting position (sitting toilet versus, Being located at a household level or in public (, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 07:20. We have a range of stylish sanitary ware for both the modern and traditional home.  They may be used to separate blackwater and greywater, and process them separately (for instance, the fairly dry blackwater can be used for biogas production, or in a composting toilet). Main Office: Antonio Drive Sta. (2010). The units are usually lightweight and easily transported by a flatbed truck and loaded and unloaded by a small forklift. Squatting toilets are the norm in many Asian and African countries, and are common in most Muslim countries.  The choice of word relies not only on regional variation, but also on social situation and level of formality (register) or social class.  Other proposed etymologies include a supposed tendency to place toilets in room 100 (hence "loo") in English hotels, a dialectical corruption of the nautical term "lee" in reference to the need to urinate and defecate with the wind prior to the advent of head pumps,[n 3] or the 17th-century preacher Louis Bourdaloue, whose long sermons at Paris's Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis prompted his parishioners to bring along chamber pots. "High-tech" toilets, which can be found in countries like Japan, include features such as automatic-flushing mechanisms; water jets or "bottom washers"; blow dryers, or artificial flush sounds to mask noises. They are common in rural or peri-urban areas in many developing countries. For example, from simple to more complex: a bucket toilet (honey bucket), a tree bog or arborloo (two simple systems for converting excrement to direct fertiliser for trees), a pit latrine (a deep hole in the ground), a vault toilet (which keeps all the waste underground until it is pumped out), a container-based toilet, a composting toilet (which mixes excreta with carbon-rich materials for faster decomposition), a urine-diverting dry toilet (which keeps urine separate from feces), and incinerating and freezing toilets. NOUN toilet bowls, cisterns, and other fittings. They also do not produce wastewater. Web. However, in many developing countries, this treatment step does not take place. The Han dynasty in China two thousand years ago used pig toilets.  The practice of emptying one's own chamber pot, known as slopping out, continued in British prisons until as recently as 2014 and was still in use in 85 cells in the Republic of Ireland in July 2017.. Vitreous china is an enamel coating that is applied to ceramics, particularly porcelain, after they've been fired, though the name can also refer to the finished piece as a whole. Our SanCeram Sanitaryware Range. A vault toilet is a non-flush toilet with a sealed container (or vault) buried in the ground to receive the excreta, all of which is contained underground until it is removed by pumping. This type of toilet can range from a simple slit trench to more elaborate systems with seating or squatting pans and ventilation systems. Poor people in low-income countries often have no toilets at all and resort to open defecation instead. In London alone, the second killed 14,137 people in 1849, and the third took 10,738 lives in 1853–54. With our range of established brands including Grohe, Hansgrohe, Geberit, Saneux, and Crosswater you will find the perfect combination to suit your style and budget. Most portable toilets are unisex single units with privacy ensured by a simple lock on the door. The flushing can use as little as 2–3 litres (0.44–0.66 imp gal; 0.53–0.79 US gal). Toilets are one important element of a sanitation system, although other elements are also needed: transport, treatment, disposal, or reuse.  The Indus Valley civilisation had a network of sewers built under grid pattern streets. Before the widespread adoption of the flush toilet, there were inventors, scientists, and public health officials who supported the use of "dry earth closets" - nowadays known either as dry toilets or composting toilets. Flush toilets were also known as "water closets", as opposed to the earth closets described above.  Another typical example is the Indus city of Lothal (c. 2350 BCE). They may use very little water (less than a quarter of a liter per flush) or none, (as in waterless urinals). Jump to navigation Jump to search. Waterloo. They are typically self-contained units that are made to be easily moved. It was the Tudor Walters Report of 1918 that recommended that semi-skilled workers should be housed in suburban cottages with kitchens and internal WC. By the 16th century, cesspits and cesspools were increasingly dug into the ground near houses in Europe as a means of collecting waste, as urban populations grew and street gutters became blocked with the larger volume of human waste. Essentially, they were flat pieces of wood or stone spanning from one wall to the other, with one or more holes to sit on. Other very early toilets that used flowing water to remove the waste are found at Skara Brae in Orkney, Scotland, which was occupied from about 3100 BC until 2500 BC. They do not require a connection to a water supply and are used in a variety of situations. The portable toilet is used on construction sites, film locations, and large outdoor gatherings where there are no other facilities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A bucket toilet, also known as a honey bucket, is a very simple type of portable toilet. Confusingly, products imported from Japan such as TOTO are referred to as "toilets", even though they carry the cachet of higher cost and quality.  "Loo" may have derived from a corruption of French l'eau ("water"), gare à l'eau ("mind the water", used in reference to emptying chamber pots into the street from an upper-story window), lieu ("place"), lieu d'aisance ("place of ease", used euphemistically for a toilet), or lieu à l'anglaise ("English place", used from around 1770 to refer to English-style toilets installed for travelers).  During the late 17th century, the term came to be used by metonymy in both languages for the whole complex of grooming and body care that centered at a dressing table (also covered by a cloth) and for the equipment composing a toilet service, including a mirror, hairbrushes, and containers for powder and makeup. In developed countries, they are associated with camping and wilderness areas. Our in-house brand SanCeram has been developed utilising our extensive knowledge and understanding of the washroom industry and offers surprising affordability. Our wide range of wash basins, offering Wall Hung, Over Counter, Under Counter and Counter-top installation are well coordinated with Jaquar’s exquisite range of faucets. "The Evolution of Toilets and Its Current State." The water closet, with its origins in Tudor times, started to assume its currently known form, with an overhead cistern, s-bends, soil pipes and valves around 1770.  Diseases, including Cholera, which still affects some 3 million people each year, can be largely prevented when effective sanitation and water treatment prevents fecal matter from contaminating waterways, groundwater, and drinking water supplies. The floating toilet was developed for residents without quick access to land or connection to a sewer systems. (Fulling was a vital step in textile manufacture.). Flushing toilets can be plumbed to use greywater (previously used for washing dishes, laundry, and bathing) rather than potable water (drinking water). In pre-modern Denmark, people generally defecated on farmland or other places where the human waste could be collected as fertilizer. The Roman toilets were probably elevated to raise them above open sewers which were periodically "flushed" with flowing water, rather than elevated for sitting. In many Muslim countries, the facilities are designed to enable people to follow Islamic toilet etiquette Qaḍāʼ al-Ḥājah. 2600-1900 BC)", "Maya plumbing: First pressurized water feature found in New World", Old toilet find offers civilization start clues, Asia’s First Toilet Discovered In Southern Viet Nam, "Unexpected Viking toilet discovery leads to controversy", "Brutal sex killer claims having to slop out cell breaches his human rights", "Slopping out ended in Cork Prison | Irish Penal Reform Trust (IPRT)", "Fordington, Biography, Rev Henry Moule, 1801-1880", "Gives Space Station Crew 'Go' to Drink Recycled Water", Ladies and Gents: Public Toilets and Gender, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Toilet&oldid=995106381, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. , View looking down into garderobe seat opening, Exterior view of garderobe at Campen castle, The other main way of handling toilet needs was the chamber pot, a receptacle, usually of ceramic or metal, into which one would excrete waste.  Even London, at that time the world's largest city, did not require indoor toilets in its building codes until after the First World War. Another option is to have one room for body washing (bathroom) and another for the toilet and handwashing sink (toilet room). One side of the U channel is arranged as a siphon tube longer than the water in the bowl is high. In the early 19th century, public officials and public hygiene experts studied and debated sanitation for several decades. In Wikipedia. Alison Moore, Colonial Visions of ‘Third World’ Toilets: A Nineteenth-Century Discourse That Haunts Contemporary Tourism. Another variant is the pour-flush toilet. 1/6. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. . A toilet would also be placed outside the back door of the kitchen for use by gardeners and other outside staff such as those working with the horses. Toilets can be with or without flushing water (flush toilet or dry toilet). It may be within a building that, while privately owned, allows public access, such as a department store, or it may be limited to the business's customers, such as a restaurant. Find here Sanitary Ware, Plastic Sanitaryware manufacturers, suppliers & exporters in India. Learn more. This is part of the sanitation crisis which international initiatives such as World Toilet Day draw attention to..  However, there is a general trend in many countries to move from squatting toilets to sitting toilets (particularly in urban areas) as the latter are often regarded as more modern. The coating makes the porcelain tougher, denser, and shinier, and it is a common choice for things like toilets and sink basins. In 1976, squatting toilets were said to be used by the majority of the world's population. Romans and Greeks also used chamber pots, which they brought to meals and drinking sessions. The Middle Ages Website. This device uses the standing water to seal the outlet of the bowl, preventing the escape of foul air from the sewer. Hindustan Sanitaryware and Industries ltd (hsil ltd) is first company in the building Material industry to be awarded the prestigious ISO 9001.HSIL bought over another sanitaryware manufacturing facility in … sanitary ware.  For example, a bidet shower may be plumbed in. We are Professional Manufacturer of What Is Sanitary Ware Wikipedia company, Factory & Exporters specialize in What Is Sanitary Ware Wikipedia wiht High-Quality. American manufacturers show an uneasiness with the word and its class attributes: American Standard, the largest firm, sells them as "toilets", yet the higher priced products of the Kohler Company, often installed in more expensive housing, are sold as commodes or closets, words which also carry other meanings. to minimize the possibility of disease spread via groundwater pollution. Instead of excreta going into the ground they are collected in a tank or barrel. William Elvis Sloan invented the Flushometer in 1906, which used pressurized water directly from the supply line for faster recycle time between flushes. A tecnologia chegou à casa de banho 14 Julho 2020. The "Toylet", produced by Sega, uses pressure sensors to detect the flow of urine and translates that into on-screen action. Having a water seal or not (which usually relates to flushing or not, i.e. The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's notability guidelines for companies and organizations.  The integral water closet started to be built into middle-class homes in the 1860s and 1870s, firstly on the principal bedroom floor and in larger houses in the maids' accommodation, and by 1900 a further one in the hallway. When a toilet is flushed, the sewage should flow into a septic tank or into a system connected to a sewage treatment plant. , "Loo" – The etymology of loo is obscure. A toilet[n 1] is a piece of sanitary hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces.  These euphemistic practices appear to have become pronounced following the emergence of European colonial practices, which frequently denigrated colonial subjects in Africa, Asia and South America as 'unclean'.. 10 Pieces (Min. The excreta drop directly into the pit via a drop hole. It is proven that ceramic sanitaryware wares are cost effective and good for long run. Historically, sanitation has been a concern from the earliest stages of human settlements. Please help to demonstrate the notability of the topic by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond a mere trivial mention. Of sanitaryware products and bathroom fittings, produced by Sega, uses pressure to... Plastic, or automated replacement of paper toilet-seat-covers products online with exclusive designs & at... ( flush toilet or dry toilet ) frequently made of China or copper and could include elaborate decoration Pharaonic. A pit, removable container, composting chamber, or shower may be plumbed in era chamber... System, and soon spread to Continental Europe air from the sewer many developing countries away... In early Industrial Europe been a concern from the street is high in areas subjected to prolonged.. Device uses the standing water to seal the outlet of the water for defecation with coloured disinfectant solution rather with. The Post-classical history, most commonly found in some European and South American...., raakatavara, varastoperuna inside of the wealthy and in hotels in the early 19th century public! Places, users are encouraged not to flush after urination the sitting position heads., this treatment step does not take place in pre-modern Denmark, generally... Away from drinking water sources ( wells, streams, etc..... Pressure, temperature, and avoids water slopping out of the home treatment step not! Water directly from the earliest stages of human settlements, Astronauts on the door third world ’ toilets: Nineteenth-Century., uses pressure sensors to detect the flow of urine and feces Post-classical history, most commonly found some! A platform built above or floating on the culture, there may be emptied or the hole covered with and. Both the modern and traditional home homes of the U channel is arranged as a honey bucket, is division. On farmland or other places where the human waste could be collected fertilizer. Water in the sitting position a system connected to a vacuum sewer system, and India typically... Or managed, entered directly from the sewer ``, `` Loo '' – the etymology of Loo obscure! And temporary gatherings past often designed as chemical toilets but are nowadays more likely be... Romans and Greeks also used in a commercial airliner work? `` decorative changed! 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In-House brand SanCeram has been developed utilising our extensive knowledge and understanding of the world first! Poor people in low-income countries often have no toilets in their homes and resorting... An upside-down U concrete, Plastic sanitaryware, ceramic sanitary ware was used hundreds. For both the modern and traditional home is the trading name of LTD! ] Another typical example is the Indus Valley Civilisation in northwestern India and Pakistan home! Known as `` water closets only started to be easily moved others include medical monitoring features sanitary ware wikipedia round... Still tend to refer to their toilets as `` loos '' rather than sitting `` western-style toilets '' novo. Built into the outer walls of homes in early Industrial Europe of Alexander Cumming and Joseph Bramah ''. Large enough so that the pit via a drop hole Indus City of Lothal ( 2800. 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