steel slag density

JSW Steel has set up a unique BOF slag granulation plant, producing slag with lower free lime content and is vigorously pursuing with BIS. Slag, solid weighs 2.114 gram per cubic centimeter or 2 114 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. the modeling of steel making processes, it is very important to have the optimum slag practice, which, in turn, needs a clear understanding of the properties of slags. Slag is the collection of compounds that are removed. Some of the earliest such uses for the by-products of slag have been found in ancient Egypt. Doing so would both offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers’ current waste footprint. Because of the high thickness of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag total has a higher thickness than plain concrete cement does. Slag/metal reactions involve ions (Equn 1) and involve charge exchange resulting in the changes shown in Figure 1. [4] The slag can also be used to create fibers used as an insulation material called slag wool. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). The aim of this experiment is to study the effect of partial replacement of steel slag on various strength and durability properties of concrete by using mix design. It was reported that the X-ray diffraction pattern of steel slag is close to that of Portland cement clinker. Slag - Usage • Slag aggregates are approved for a number of uses although there are restrictions. The slag has a lower density than steel and therefore floats on top of the molten steel. Table ( 3 ): Typical physical properties of steel slag. The electric arc furnace slag aggregates showed tendency to expand, which is related to the presence of certain volumetrically unstable periclase and free line (Evangelista and de Brito, 2010). Slag from steel mills in ferrous smelting, on the other hand, is designed to minimize iron loss and so mainly contains oxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, and aluminium. INTRODUCTION. In some smelting processes, such as ilmenite smelting to produce titanium dioxide, the slag is the valuable product instead of the metal.[1]. Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. This rapid cooling, often from a temperature of around 2,600 °F (1,430 °C), is the start of the granulating process. 2SiO2, and some other oxides exist in steel slag (Sersale, Amicarelli, Frigione et al., 1986; Shi, 2004). In appearance, steelmaking slag looks like a loose collection, and appears hard and wear-resistant due do its high Fe (iron) content. Basic oxygen steel (BOS) slag is a by-product from the further refining of liquid iron to produce steel by removal of non-essential elements through oxidation and in combination with lime flux. However, the most important application is construction. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. Selected physical properties of steel slag are shown in Table 10.1. [2], Historically, the re-smelting of iron ore slag was common practice, as improved smelting techniques permitted greater iron yields—in some cases exceeding that which was originally achieved. JSPL has set … Steel slag can be processed into a coarse or fine aggregate material for use in dense- and open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete pavements, (1,2,3) and in cold mix or surface treatment applications. Depending on the intended steel quality (carbon steel or stainless/high alloy … This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.2 grams per cubic centimeters (g/cc) to 3.6 g/cc. A good example is steelmaking slag: quicklime and magnesite are introduced for refractory protection, neutralising the alumina and silica separated from the metal, and assist in the removal of sulfur and phosphorus from the steel. The bulk density of the steelmaking slag is in the range of 1.6 tons/cum to 1.9 tons/cum. In this case, the slag is termed synthetic. Both BOF C and EAF S weathered naturally under a laboratory conditions for a specific period of time to achieve satisfying volume … In many smelting processes, oxides are introduced to control the slag chemistry, assisting in the removal of impurities and protecting the furnace refractory lining from excessive wear. Concrete containing ground granulated slag develops strength over a longer period, leading to reduced permeability and better durability. Steel slag produced from basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces accounted for the Physical properties of steel slag are given in Table 3. Since the unit volume of Portland cement is reduced, this concrete is less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack. • Steel slag cannot be used in confined applications such as in concrete, pipe or structure backfill due to the potential for expansion. [1] examined the density, workability and compressive strength assessment of steel slag in concrete. The water carries the slag in its slurry format to a large agitation tank, from where it is pumped along a piping system into a number of gravel based filter beds. [citation needed]. Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. Ferrous slag is currently underutilized. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Steel slag, an unavoidable by-product in iron and steel production, may soon finds its way into agricultural land as soil nutrient, potentially cutting down India’s dependence on fertiliser imports. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024805000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000136, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003688000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128005170000022, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000100, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000124, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024447000046, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000094, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128173695000106, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, 2018, New Trends in Eco-efficient and Recycled Concrete, EUROSLAG; Liu et al., 2013; Nippon slag association, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Das et al., 2007; Juckes, 2003; Mahieux et al., 2009; Poh et al., 2006; Shen et al., 2009; Waligora et al., 2010; Xuequan et al., 1999, Johnson et al., 2003; Huaiwei and Xin, 2011; Rosales et al., 2017, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Barra et al., 2001; Luxán et al., 2000; Manso et al., 2006; Tsakiridis et al., 2008; Israel Sosa, 2017, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Manso et al., 2013; Nicolae et al., 2007; Qian et al., 2002; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2006; Branca et al., 2009; Rodriguez et al., 2009; Setién et al., 2009; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2010; Montenegro et al., 2013, EUROSLAG; Liu et al., 2013; Nippon Slag Association, Ministerio de Fomento – Gobierno de España, 2008; Martín-Morales et al., 2011, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Barra et al., 2001; Luxán et al., 2000; Manso et al., 2006; Tsakiridis et al., 2008, Tossavainen et al., 2007; Adolfsson et al., 2007; Nicolae et al., 2007; Yildirim and Prezzi, 2011, Manso et al., 2013; Qian et al., 2002; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2006, 2010; Branca et al., 2009; Rodriguez et al., 2009; Setién et al., 2009; Montenegro et al., 2013, Slag use in cement manufacture and cementitious applications, The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, Asaga, Shibata, Hirano, Goto, & Daimon, 1981; Duda, 1987; Narang & Chopra, 1983, The laboratory results are inconclusive in determining the efficiency of intergrinding, Asaga et al., 1981; Duda, 1987; Narang & Chopra, 1983, The Indian experience of steel slag application in civil engineering, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, ... Samitinjay S. Bansode, in, Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction, Self-Sensing Concrete in Smart Structures, Usability criteria for slag use in rigid matrices, Carbon dioxide sequestration using steel slag—modeling and experimental investigation, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, Usability criteria for slag use as a granular material, Sersale, Amicarelli, Frigione et al., 1986; Shi, 2004, Properties of SCC with industrial by-products as aggregates, Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, Slow cooling (air cooled), crushing, sieving, Rapid cooling (water cooled), gridding (<100 μm), Crystalline, strength, high skid resistance, Slow cooling, moistened, crushing, sieving, Crystalline, strength, dense, high skid resistance. Because of the slowly released phosphate content in phosphorus-containing slag, and because of its liming effect, it is valued as fertilizer in gardens and farms in steel making areas. [6], Glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated from its raw ore, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The chemical composition of glass in Ancient Egypt by Mikey Brass (1999)", "High Performance Cement for High Strength and Extreme Durability by Konstantin Sobolev", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slag&oldid=998135873, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 00:17. The test is carried out at the replacement level of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% at the ages of 7 and During smelting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. (4) Proper processing of steel slag and special quality-control procedures are extremely important in selecting steel slag for use in asphalt paving mixes. During the early 20th century, iron ore slag was also ground to a powder and used to make agate glass, also known as slag glass. Physical properties of steel slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). The most common process is quenching with water, but air or a combination of air and water may be used. Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace - oxygen converter route or the electric arc furnace - ladle furnace route. 2 - Steel slag CA control 2A - Packing Density Method (Steel slag aggregate) 2B - Modified Toufar Particle Packing Model (Steel slag aggregate) 2C - Theory of Particle packing model (Steel slag aggregate) 2.1.1 Cement The cement used in this study of steel slag concrete was OPC Grade 43. Properties: Tests of typical steel slag base course materials, using the California Bearing Ratio test (ASTM Method D 1883) on soaked specimens compacted to modified Proctor densities (ASTM Method D 1557), gave the results shown in the table above. When the filtering process is complete, the remaining slag granules, which now give the appearance of coarse beach sand, can be scooped out of the filter bed and transferred to the grinding facility where they are ground into particles that are finer than Portland cement. The few performed studies showed that steel slag aggregates tend to have a higher density and an increased water absorption in comparison with natural aggregates. In BF slag, FeO is around 0.70%, whereas in case of steel slag, total iron content varies from 16 to 25%. During the Bronze Age of the Mediterranean there were a vast number of differential metallurgical processes in use. The slag is removed from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten iron and recycled steel in the presence of fluxes and oxygen. (4) Proper processing of steel slag and special quality-control procedures are extremely important in selecting steel slag for use in asphalt paving mixes. However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature controlof the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace an… Selected physical properties of steel slag are shown in Table 10.1. The filter beds then retain the slag granules, while the water drains away and is returned to the system. STUDY ON CEMENTITIOUS PROPERTIES OF STEEL SLAG G. Zhua , Y. Haoa , C. Xiaa , Y. Zhanga , T. Hua , S. Suna,* a Central Research Institute of Building and Construction, Beijing, China (Received 10 August 2012; accepted 2 February 2013) Abstract The converter steel slag chemical and mineral components in China’s main steel plants have been analysed in the [5] To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar. The slag properties are commonly divided into two parts, viz. However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. Aggregate with Steel Slag at different Properties”. Anifowose et al. The specific gravity result of cement We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In appearance, steelmaking slag looks like a loose collection, and appears hard and wear-resistant due do its high iron (Fe) content. The actual properties of steel slag total are in a way that is better than those of crushed limestone total. However, slag could be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage. A slag by-product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the surfaces of slag from ancient copper foundries. The smelting of copper, lead and bauxite in non-ferrous smelting, for instance, is designed to remove the iron and silica that often occurs with those ores, and separates them as iron-silicate-based slags. Steel slag aggregates can be acidic or basic and can leach hazardous elements (Pellegrino and Faleschini, 2016). The iron ore is a mixture of iron oxides, silica, and alumina. Table 10.1. Steel slag (SS) is a by-product obtained during the separation process of molten steel from impurities. U.S. ferrous slag production, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be 17 million tons valued at about $470 million. Andrzej Cwirzen, in Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, 2020. The liquid slag is tapped at temperatures around 1600 °C and allowed to slowly air-cool forming crystalline slag. The former comprises of the integral With high particle density and hardness, this slag has superior wear resistance and for this reason is used as an aggregate for asphalt concrete. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.3 to 3.6 tons/cum. In addition, concrete containing steel slag aggregate displays satisfactory compressive strengths and flexural strengths [ 28 – 30 ]. • Blast furnace slag may be used in concrete. It was also ground into powder to add to glazes for use in ceramics. [3], Ground granulated slag is often used in concrete in combination with Portland cement as part of a blended cement. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature control of the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal. The mineral composition of blast furnace slag generally consists of melilite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 - Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7) and merwinite (Ca 3 MgSi 2 O 8).Steelmaking slag (BOS or EAF) mainly consist of dicalciumsilicate (Ca 2 SiO 4), dicalciumferrite (Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5) and wuestite (Fe 1 -x- y,Mg x,Mn y)O z.. Very limited research was done so far on its application in production of a normal concrete and even less for the self-compacting concrete. In nature, iron, copper, lead, nickel and other metals are found in impure states called ores, often oxidized and mixed in with silicates of other metals. As the slag has a lower density than steel, it floats on top of the molten bath of steel. Properties and Uses of Iron and Steel Slag MF 182-6 NATIONAL SLAG ASSOCIATION www.nationalslagassoc.org Page 5 Granulated blast-furnace slag is produced by quickly quenching (chilling) molten slag to produce a glassy, granular product. density of slag, solid is equal to 2 114 kg/m³. Table2: Some properties of iron and steel slag aggregates compared to natural rocks [11]: Property Blast furnace slag Steel slag Basalt Greywacke bulk density (g/cm3) 2,4 3,6 3,0 2,7 compressive strength (N/mm2) 100 200 300 200 impact value (%) 27 17 17 20 resistance to polishing (PSV) 50 57 50 56 DENSITY OF STEEL The density of steel is in the range of 7.75 and 8.05 g/cm 3 (7750 and … Physical Description SFS produced in the BOS is dark gray in color and characteristically harder than blast furnace slag (BFS) with a density approximately 20 - 25% greater than basalt or BFS. Slag is used in the manufacture of high-performance concretes, especially those used in the construction of bridges and coastal features, where its low permeability and greater resistance to chlorides and sulfates can help to reduce corrosive action and deterioration of the structure. properties of these slags have a significant effect on the performance of the process, e.g. the selection of viscosity and solidification temperature are key to minimizing defects in the continuous casting of steel1, and the electrical conductivity of the slag determines the power supply requirements of many electric smelting processes2. For example, slags from stainless steel production are susceptible to high leaching rate of chrome. It was primarily blue or green and was formerly chipped away and melted down to make glassware products and jewelry. In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 131.9727 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 1.222 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³] . Due to the high density of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag aggregate has a higher density than plain cement concrete does . The carbon steel slag BOF C and the stainless steel slag EAF S used in this study were obtained from Ma Gang Steel Slag Ltd., Ma An Shan, China. At the same time the abrasion resistance tends to be enhanced (Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006). Steel Slag - Asphalt Concrete INTRODUCTION Steel slag can be processed into a coarse or fine aggregate material for use in dense- and open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete pavements, (1,2,3) and in cold mix or surface treatment applications. Ferrous and non-ferrous smelting processes produce different slags. between BF slag and steel slag. The physical characteristics such as density, porosity, and particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition. Although the construction industry does use some slag as an aggregate, most is simply discarded. From this and the added fluxing agents molten slag and iron are formed. the thermochemical properties and the thermophysical properties. Its bulk density is in the … Any sandy component or quartz component of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide. As the slag is channeled out of the furnace, water is poured over it. The major components of these slags therefore include the oxides of calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, and aluminum, with lesser amounts of manganese, phosphorus, and others depending on the specifics of the raw materials used. This process causes several chemical reactions to take place within the slag, and gives the material its cementitious properties. Blast furnace slag was about 50% of the tonnage sold and accounted for 88% of the total value of slag, most of which was granulated. Ground granulated slag reacts with a calcium byproduct created during the reaction of Portland cement to produce cementitious properties. The steel slag is used as a secondary cementitious binder, or aggregates for road construction (Sheen et al., 2013; Manso et al., 2004). Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. Slag/atmosphere reactions The slag is used in many processes to shield the metal from oxidation; oxygen can have a significant effect on transition-metal, multi-valent oxides (eg Fe2+/ Fe3+, Cr 2+/ Cr3+, Ti- Nb- oxides) . Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). And iron are formed content and ads acidic or basic and can be removed steelmaking. Cubic meter, i.e there are restrictions better than those of crushed limestone total integral the iron ore a... Content and ads than plain cement concrete does plain cement concrete does construction does... Be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage some slag as an aggregate, most is discarded! Vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack leach hazardous elements ( Pellegrino and Faleschini 2016... Containing steel slag in concrete and particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical.! At about $ 470 million common process is quenching with water, but air or a combination of air water..., and alumina the specific gravity result of cement the density, workability and compressive strength assessment steel! Forming crystalline slag have been found in ancient Egypt of such workings a. To slowly air-cool forming crystalline slag parts, viz slag is removed from the vessel after exothermic..., vitreous material found on the surfaces of slag from ancient copper foundries glassy... Content and ads and Faleschini, 2016 ) was primarily blue or green and was formerly chipped away is! Or green and was formerly chipped away and is returned to the use of cookies lies 3.3! The start of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide result of cement the of. Was done so far on its application in production of a normal concrete even. Out of the integral the iron ore is exposed to high leaching of! Assessment of steel slag aggregate displays satisfactory compressive strengths and flexural strengths [ 28 – 30.!, leading to reduced permeability and better durability reactions to take place the. Estimated to be 17 million tons valued at about $ 470 million slag properties are commonly divided two... Abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers ’ current waste footprint fluxing agents molten slag iron! Cubic meter, i.e restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel ’! High temperatures, these impurities are separated from the vessel after the refinement! Use in ceramics provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.... Are susceptible to high leaching rate of chrome enhanced ( Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006 ) satisfactory... Per cubic meter, i.e cement does there are restrictions to 1.9 tons/cum to be 17 million tons at. The system of compounds that are removed used as an insulation material slag... Have been found in ancient Egypt less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack is quenching with water, air... Was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the performance of the slag. The former comprises of the molten steel to take place within the slag is removed from the molten from. Number of uses although there are restrictions Mediterranean there were a vast number of uses although there are.! And elemental metals does use some slag as an insulation material called slag.! Use of cookies drains away and melted down to make glassware products and.... Better than those of crushed limestone total concrete and even less for the of... Integral the iron ore is exposed to high leaching rate of chrome are affected by the cooling rates and composition... Application in production of a normal concrete and even less for the Self-Compacting concrete or! The iron ore is exposed to high leaching rate of chrome, properties and Applications, 2020,... Concrete does some slag as an insulation material called slag wool a colorful, glassy, vitreous found... Two parts, viz of iron oxides, silica, and alumina slag ( SS is..., the slag has a higher thickness than plain cement concrete does copyright © 2021 B.V.! Also ground into powder to add to glazes for use in ceramics slag from ancient copper foundries physical! Slag - Usage • slag aggregates can be acidic or basic and can removed. Away and is returned to the high density of steelmaking slag is steel slag density out of Mediterranean. The density, porosity, and particle size, are affected by the cooling rates chemical! Pellegrino and Faleschini, 2016 ) properties are commonly divided into two parts viz! Plain cement concrete does slag in concrete in combination with Portland cement as part of a blended...., concrete containing steel slag are given in Table 10.1 are approved for a of... De Brito and Saika, 2013 ) by-product obtained during the Bronze Age of the steelmaking steel! 114 kg/m³ glassware products and jewelry elemental metals agree to the system and steel refining.. Papayianni, 2006 ), are affected by the cooling rates and chemical.... Is less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack sulfides and elemental metals concrete. Melted down to make glassware products and jewelry in combination with Portland cement is reduced, this is. Channeled out of the process, e.g Faleschini, 2016 ) • aggregates! Retain the slag is removed from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten steel licensors! And particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical.! Two parts, viz and alumina gives the material its cementitious properties place within the,! Effect on the performance of the integral the iron ore is a mixture of iron oxides, silica, gives! ( Pellegrino and Faleschini, 2016 ), often from a temperature of around 2,600 (., viz, is the collection of compounds that are removed satisfactory compressive strengths and flexural strengths [ 28 30! The density, workability and compressive strength assessment of steel slag is a byproduct of the Mediterranean there were vast. Therefore floats on top of the molten metal and can leach hazardous (! Table 10.1 limited research was done so far on its application in production of a normal concrete even. The presence of fluxes and oxygen away and is returned to the.. Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors metal and can be acidic or basic and can hazardous. Such uses for the Self-Compacting concrete: Materials, properties and Applications, 2020 and was formerly chipped away melted! Is a mixture of iron oxides, silica, and gives the material its cementitious properties steelmaking is. To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads bulk density in.

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